Organizational Behavior

At the individual level, Social Cognitive Theory addresses choice and development of occupational careers, management of occupational role demands, organizational culture, productivity, stress and burnout.

Group functioning is the product of the interactive and coordinative dynamics of its members. Interactive dynamics create an emergent property that is more than the sum of individual attributes. A host of factors contribute to the interactive effects. Some of these factors are the mix of knowledge and competencies in the group, how the group is structured and its activities coordinated, how well it is led, the strategies it adopts, and whether members interact with one another in mutually facilitory or undermining ways. Individual and collective efficacy differ in the unit of agency, but in both forms efficacy beliefs have similar sources, serve similar functions, and operate through similar processes.

Bandura, A. (2000). Exercise of human agency through collective efficacy. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9, 75-78
Bandura, A. (1988). Organizational applications of social cognitive theory. Australian Journal of Management, 13, 275-302.
Bandura, A. (2013). The role of self-efficacy in goal-based motivation. In E.A. Locke & G.P Latham (Ed.). Development in goal setting and task performance (pp. 147-157) New York: Taylor & Francis.
Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 248-287.
Bandura, A. (2000). Cultivate self-efficacy for personal and organizational efffectiveness. In E. A. Locke (Ed.), Handbook of principles of organization behavior (pp. 120-136). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
Wood, R. & Bandura, A. (1989). Social cognitive theory of organizational management. Academy of Management Review, 14, 361-384.
Bandura, A. (1990).Reflections on nonability determinants of competence.  In R. J. Sternberg & J. Kolligian, Jr. (Eds.), Competence considered (pp. 315-362).  New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.


Bandura, A., & Wood, R. E. (1989). Effect of perceived controllability and performance standards on self-regulation of complex decision-making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 805-814.
Wood, R.E., Bandura, A. (1989). Impact of conceptions of ability on self-regulatory mechanisms and complex decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 407-415.
Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V., & Pastorelli, C. (2001). Self-efficacy beliefs as shapers of children’s aspirations and career trajectories.  Child Development, 72, 187-206.
Bandura, A., Pastorelli, C., Barbaranelli, C., & Caprara, G. V. (1999).  Self-efficacy pathways to childhood depression.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 258-269.
Wood, R. E., Bandura, A., & Bailey, T. (1990). Mechanisms governing organizational performance in complex decision-making environments. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 46, 181-201.
Bandura, A., & Jourden, F. J. (1991). Self-regulatory mechanisms governing the impact of social comparison on complex decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 941- 951.
Debowski, S, Wood, R.E., and Bandura, A. (2001). Impact of guided exploration and enactive exploration on self-regulatory mechanisms and information acquisition through electronic search. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 1129-1141.


Bandura A. (1997). Self-Efficacy: The exercise of control New York: Freeman (chapter 10 &11).
Bandura, A. (2023). Social Cognitive Theory: An agentic perspective on human nature. New Jersey: Wiley & Sons.