Self Regulation

Self-regulatory systems lie at the very heart of causal processes. They not only mediate the effects of most external influences, but provide the very basis for purposeful action. Self regulation operates through three major subfunctions as a self-governing system. The first subfunction involves monitoring one's performances. Self-monitoring provides the information needed for setting performance standards and for evaluating one's progress toward them. In the second subfunction, individuals evaluate their behavior against their standards, situational circumstances and valuation of the activities. The referential comparisons set the occasion for the third subfunction, affective self-reactions to one's judged performances. Anticipatory self-sanctions not only serve as guides and motivators of behavior but affect satisfaction people derive from what they do.

Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 248-287.
Bandura, A. (1991). Self-regulation of motivation through anticipatory and self-reactive mechanisms. In R. A. Dienstbier (Ed.), Perspectives on motivation: Nebraska symposium on motivation (Vol. 38, pp. 69-164). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Bandura, A. (1988).Self-regulation of motivation and action through goal systems.  In V. Hamilton, G. H. Bower, & N. H. Frijda (Eds.), Cognitive perspectives on emotion and motivation (pp. 37-61).  Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Bandura, A. (2013). The role of self-efficacy in goal-based motivation. In E.A. Locke & G.P Latham (Ed.). Development in goal setting and task performance. (pp. 147-157) New York: Taylor & Francis.
Bandura, A. (1996). Failures in self-regulation: Energy depletion or selective disengagement? Psychological Inquiry, 7, 20-24.


Bandura, A., & Cervone, D (1983). Self-evaluative and self-efficacy mechanisms governing the motivational effects of goal systems. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 1017-1028.
Bandura, A., & Cervone, D. (1986). Differential engagement of self-reactive influences in cognitive motivation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 38, 92-113.
Bandura, A., & Schunk, D. H. (1981). Cultivating competence, self-efficacy, and intrinsic interest through proximal self-motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 586-598.
Bandura, A., & Simon, K. M. (1977). The role of proximal intentions in self-regulation of refractory behavior. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1, 177-193.
Bandura, A., & Mischel, W. (1965). Modification of self-imposed delay of reward through exposure to live and symbolic models. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2, 698-705.
Bandura, A., & Perloff, B. (1967). Relative efficacy of self-monitored and externally-imposed reinforcement systems. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 7, 111-116.
Bandura, A., Grusec, J., & Menlove, F. (1967). Some social determinants of self-monitoring reinforcement systems. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5, 449-455.
Bandura, A., & Kupers, C. J. (1964). Transmission of patterns of self-reinforcement through modeling. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 69, 1-9.
Bandura, A., Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Pastorelli, C., & Regalia, C. (2001).Sociocognitive self-regulatory mechanisms governing transgressive behavior.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 125-135.
Zimmerman, B., & Bandura, A. (1994). Impact of self-regulatory factors on writing course attainment.  American Educational Research Journal, 31, 845-862.
Bandura, A., & Whalen, C. K. (1966). The influence of antecedent reinforcement and divergent modeling cues on patterns of self-reward. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3, 373-382.
Bandura, A., & Mahoney, M. J. (1974). Maintenance and transfer of self-reinforcement functions. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 12, 89-97.
Bandura, A., Mahone, M., & Dirks, S. (1976). Discriminative activation and maintenance of contingent self-reinforcement. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 14, 1-6.
Mahoney, M. J., & Bandura, A. (1972). Self-reinforcement in pigeons. Learning and Motivation, 3, 293-303.



Bandura, A. Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1986 (chapter 10).
Bandura, A. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman, 1997 (chapter 5, 6).
Bandura, A. Social Cognitive Theory: An agentic perspective on human nature. New Jersey: Wiley & Sons, 2023.